Andrea Bolner1, Carlo Berizzi2, Sujem Benedetto3, Roberto Vano3, Rocco Micciolo4, Andrea Muscarà5, Aldo Passelli6, Ottavio Bosello7, Giampietro Nordera1
1Oxidative Stress Center (CSOx), Vicenza, Italy
2Nutrivector®, Mogliano Veneto, Treviso, Italy
3Alagen-io, Promos Biotech, Udine, Italy
4Department of Psichology and Cognitive Sciences, University of Trento, Trento, Italy
5Friuli Coram Srl, Udine, Italy
6Udinese Calcio, Udine, Italy
7Department of Medicine, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
Objective: An intense physical activity cause inflammation and produces oxidizing molecules that physiologically “train” the body to restoring the homeostatic balance. It’s alteration can lead to a sub-clinical pro-inflammatory state known as “oxinflammation.” The aim of this study was to measure some inflammation and redox biomarkers in a team of soccer players during a competitive season to identify relationships between oxinflammation, nutrition, workloads, and athletic performances.
Methods: Thirty four players were evaluated every 2 months from pre- until end-season (visits V0–V4). At each time, a panel of oxinflammatory biomarkers were measured: interleukin-6, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), total peroxides (derivates of Reactive Oxigen Metabolites), total antioxidant barrier (biological antioxidant potential ), total (GSSG + GSH) and reduced (GSH) glutathione, vitamins A and E, beta carotene, lycopene, coenzyme Q10, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine. The nutritional program was customized for each athlete to ensure adequate supply of micro- and macro-nutrients. Starting from V2, following the replacement of the coach, the training program was suddenly changed, and the high intensity work was significantly increased.
Results: Until V2, the oxinflammation balance remained still in equilibrium, and total and reduced glutathione were favorably increased (+19% and +16% vs. V1, respectively, p < 0.001). After the change of workloads, the inflammation had worsened decreasing GSH and sharply increasing 3-NT, marker of irreversible nitration (+ 1274% at V4, p < 0.001).
Conclusion: Above a threshold, the eccentric exercise has altered the oxinflammatory balance. The nutritional intervention was partially able to counteract the alteration but, the worsening of balance at the end of season, showed that probably, it was much more conditioned by the physical overload. A customized balancing between training, rest period, and nutrition is, therefore, crucial, and the measurement of some oxinflammation markers, as hsCRP, GSH, and 3-NT, may be helpful to evaluate the state of fitness and recognize early the approaching of the over-training threshold.
Read full Article in American Journal of Research in Medical Sciences